History of Tangier
They say that Tangier was founded by Antaeus (atlas), son of Neptune and the Earth, putting the name of his wife (tingo) or that of his daughter (tinga). Antheus was killed by Hercules, son of Jupiter. Its tomb is situated on one of the hills around the city, "charf hill".
From Tangiers it is also said that there flourished the "Gardens of the Hesperides", where their trees produced fruits of gold.
Another theory bases the birth of Tánger to the inhabitants of Candan, philistine town.
According to the facts, Tangier is shown as one of the most powerful Phoenician metropolis. Founded by the Phoenicians who came from Tire, an eminently traveler and merchant people, who crossed the Mediterranean, establishing cities there where they carried them, carrying their culture, Tangiers preserves only its founders two necropolis. One is located on the Marshan hill, facing the sea, the other on the Kasbah.
Later, the Carthaginians settled on Tangiers, developing a great commercial activity, based on the exchange of local products, wool, hides, as well as gold, ivory and slaves, which the Berbers brought from the Sudan accompanying the caravans , For iron and bronze utensils, ceramics, weapons and perfumes brought from Carthage (now Tunis).
After the destruction of Carthage by the Romans, Morocco was conquered by the great power of Rome, becoming Roman province by the Emperor Claudius and Tangier rose to the rank of administrative and military capital of Mauritania Tingitana.
Tingis or Traducta Julia, as it was later called, knew the apotheosis of the Roman civilization. They created towns, cities, roads and became the starting point of products, such as oil, wheat, furs and animals towards Rome. In the middle of the fifth century the Roman Empire began its decline, dragging with it the colonies founded by them and it was not an exception Tangier.
The Vandals seized Tangier, remaining for a century, until it was reconquered again by the Roman general Belisario, who disembarked with his army by defeating the Vandals. Again they settled there but began the end of the Roman occupation of Tanger. In 683, Oqba Ben Nafí invaded Morocco, entering Tangier.
At the beginning of the 7th century. Another Arab army occupied the north of Africa driven by Moussa Ben Nousair, arriving at Tangier where it did not find great resistance on the part of its inhabitants. He appointed governor of the city to a converted Berber, of Jewish origin, Tarik Ben Ziad.
In the year 711 it was the one who, crossing the strait, invaded the Iberian peninsula and gave name to the present Gibraltar (gibel in Arabic means mount). Likewise his lieutenant Tarif Ben Malek invaded the Spanish Atlantic coast and perpetuated his name at the current rate.
During the reign of Idriss i e Idriss ii, Tangier was ruled by local authorities. To the death of idriss ii, its reign is divided between its children, happening this in the year 829.
The city of Tangier was granted to kacem, who was later defeated by his brother Omar and had to take refuge on the banks of the river Tahadart where he dedicated himself to prayer. Even today, there is a tradition of going to the place. (Sidi kacem).
Tangier was dominated by the "Idrisses" until the arrival of the Almoravids at the end of the eleventh century, who led by an excellent leader, Yussef Ben Tachfin, invaded all the cities of the empire reaching Algeria.
This military man is said to have been a just man, a skilled warrior who knew how to command with intelligence, considering himself to be the first great ruler who ruled over the lands of Morocco. (1061-1106)
Legend has it that his tomb stands under the shadow of an ancient tree behind the Koutoubia of Marrakesh, the city he founded.
In 1148, Tangier succumbed under the forces of Caliph Almohade, Abd El Moumen and in 1196 by Yacoub El Mansour.
During the thirteenth century, the beginning of the Merinid era, the Tangiers square will know some years of independence with the Emir El Hamdani.
At his death, at the hands of his own subjects, his son succeeded him. By those years and already under the reign of Yacoub Ben Abdelhalak, Tánger underwent a tremendous siege by land and by sea.
In 1359 the city is conquered by Abú Salem, brother of Abu Inam, that coming from the conquered Spain took the throne.
Continuing with the vicissitudes in the history of this city with universal destiny, I must mention a world-known explorer, writer and geographer, Abu Abdellah Mohamed Ben Ibrahin El Luati El Tangi, known by Ibn Batouta. Born in Tangier in 1283. Being contemporary with Marco Polo, his image and fame was never overshadowed by him.
An impenitent traveler, he dedicated his life to the study of geography. Ibn Batouta died in 1377.
In 1889, when Sultan Moulay Hassan visited the city of Tangier, he declared his tomb as the sanctuary of Sidi Ahmed Ben Allal. It is said that he commented: "This tomb you see here, is none other than that of the famous Ibn Batouta, who will be venerated by all."
During the reign of Edward I of Portugal, the Portuguese, who had already occupied Ceuta in 1415, attempted to seize Tangier in 1437. The city was successfully defended by Salah Ben Salah, Lord of Tangier and Arzila. The Mujahideen inflicted a hard defeat on the Lusitanian army.
Again in 1458 there was another attempt, being repelled.
In 1464, under the reign of Alfonso V, the Portuguese fleet commanded by Luis Méndez de Vasconcellos tried again.
Finally August 28, 1471 Tangier was occupied by Alfonso V and Don Juan, son of the Duke of Braganza.
During the long period of occupation (1471-1662), the city experienced a flourishing of commerce.
In 1581, Portugal loses its independence and passes, along with Tangier to depend on the Spanish Crown.
As a result of this, all the Portuguese colonies gradually lost all the character of commercial centers becoming mere fortifications.
This situation remained until 1643, when Tanger, under the governor Rodrigo de Silveira, again relied on the authority of Lisbon, which still under Spanish jurisdiction, enjoyed broad political and administrative autonomy, being its rulers Portuguese
After this, Portugal regains its independence being proclaimed king D. John IV, of the dynasty of the Braganza.
The city of Tangier and in order to protect it from its enemies, was surrounded by wide walls, of which at the moment some vestiges remain.
P ortugal, in order to secure his alliance with England, negotiates the wedding of Infanta Catalina de Braganza, daughter of Queen Louisa de Braganza, with King Charles II. Passing Tangier to be part of the dowry that brought the Infanta to the wedding.
King Charles II declared in Parliament: "The acquisition of Tangiers should be regarded as a jewel of incalculable value to the British Crown."
Portugal, after 190 years of occupation, on January 30, 1662, being Governor Luís de Almeida, ceded the keys of the city to Sir Henry Moudaunt, II Count of Peterbourought, settled in the "Castle of the Portuguese" in the Kasbah .
The British occupation only lasted for 22 years (1662-1684), but during that short period the city consolidated as an important capital. THE GODDESS VESTA This statue of white marble of more than 2 meters is the most important Roman vestige discovered in Tangier. I met on 10 August 1935 on a property of D. Moises h. Azancot, in the big souk.